The Institute for Independent Education

Founded by Dr. Joan Davis Ratteray in 1984 in Washington DC, the Institute for Independent Education's mission was to provide technical assistance to independent community-based schools, especially those owned and operated by African Americans and located primarily in urban areas.  With the collaboration of Dr. Mwalimu Shujaa and Dr. Gail Foster, Dr. Ratteray was able to document and study over 200 independent schools nationwide founded by people of African Ancestry.  The archives for the Institute for Independent Education are currently housed at Cornell University.

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