During the 1990's and early 2000s the Toussaint Institute Fund, the Institute for Independent Education, and the Council on Independent Black Institutions all conducted and published research on historically black independent schools.  School Choice  legislation and policy, in particular, charter schools and vouchers, and it's potential impact on Historically Black Independent Schools was explored and discussed, both in terms of the schools and African American parents seeking alternatives to poor performing public schools in their communities.

City Schools Book Cover.png

Historically Black Independent Schools

Gail Foster, Ed.D

See Chapter 12 in 

City Schools

Editors: Ravitch & Viteritti

Congressional Testimony
Expand Educational Options
for Black Children 
Gail Foster. Ed.D.
New York's Wealth of Historically Black  Independent Schools
Gail Foster, Ed.D. in
Journal of Negro Education

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